• A.B., Sociology/Social Welfare, San Diego State College, 1966 (minors: health science and journalism)
  • M.A., journalism, Ball State University, 1969
  • Ph.D., mass communication/journalism, The Ohio University (cognates: American government, Language and Cultures)
  • Additional study at the University of California

  • Seminar for Journalism Educators (one week residency) American Press Institute (Reston, Va.)
  • American Newspaper Publishers Association/Research Institute
  • Public Affairs Institute (three week residency in Waterloo, Iowa)
  • Computer knowledge: desktop publishing, word processing, media graphics
  • United States Coast Guard courses in search and rescue,navigation, and communications